As cells decay inside the reactor, they produce heat. The world's oldest known nuclear reactors operated at what is now Oklo in Gabon, West Africa. The high temperature gives it a high thermal efficiency – about 41%. High Temperature Reactor. The heavy water moderator circulating through the body of the calandria vessel also yields some heat (though this circuit is not shown on the diagram above). Your SC-1 cannot handle the amperage requirement. Our … Fuel is low-enriched uranium oxide made up into fuel assemblies 3.5 metres long. Some have been replaced with digital systems. * These are large heat exchangers for transferring heat from one fluid to another – here from high-pressure primary circuit in PWR to secondary circuit where water turns to steam. Most of the radioactivity in the water is very short-lived*, so the turbine hall can be entered soon after the reactor is shut down. The UK's last Magnox reactor closed at the end of 2015. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. In the primary cooling circuit the water is also the moderator, and if any of it turned to steam the fission reaction would slow down. The fuel is uranium oxide pellets, enriched to 2.5 - 3.5%, in stainless steel tubes. If graphite or heavy water is used as moderator, it is possible to run a power reactor on natural instead of enriched uranium. Charge tubes 2. * In fission, most of the neutrons are released promptly, but some are delayed. The fuel pellets (usually about 1 cm diameter and 1.5 cm long) are typically arranged in a long zirconium alloy (zircaloy) tube to form a fuel rod, the zirconium being hard, corrosion-resistant and transparent to neutrons. This image is a derivative work of the following images: File:RBMK_reactor_schematic.svg licensed with Cc-by-sa-3.0 . A nuclear reactor, part of the Nuclear Plant is an important concept in Science & Technology which is part of General Studies paper-3 in the UPSC Syllabus. Steam generators are the most prominent and expensive of these, and many have been replaced after about 30 years where the reactor otherwise has the prospect of running for 60 or more years. Containment In thermal reactors, chlorides are only candidates for secondary cooling loops. A PWR has fuel assemblies of 200-300 rods each, arranged vertically in the core, and a large reactor would have about 150-250 fuel assemblies with 80-100 tonnes of uranium. In the most common reactors these are about 4 metres long. It is assumed that these were not unique worldwide. In Russia these are known as VVER types – water-moderated and -cooled. In this article we will discuss about nuclear reactor, its parts and their function. (It is also uneconomic to run them at less than full capacity, since they are expensive to build but cheap to run.) Four will use fluoride or liquid metal coolants, hence operate at low pressure. European Utility Requirements (EUR) since 2001 specify that new reactor designs must be capable of load-following between 50 and 100% of capacity with a rate of change of electric output of 3-5% per minute. Thermal efficiency %, the ratio of gross MWe to MWt. The steam is used to generate electricity. Water 8. They may be run on recycled uranium from reprocessing LWR used fuel, or a blend of this and depleted uranium left over from enrichment plants. Net electrical MWe, which is the power available to be sent out from the plant to the grid, after deducting the electrical power needed to run the reactor (cooling and feedwater pumps. Nuclear plant reactor power outputs are quoted in three ways: * Net electrical MWe and gross MWe vary slightly from summer to winter, so normally the lower summer figure, or an average figure, is used. Copper Cable is sufficient for basic reactors, but advanced reactors will require Gold or HV Cable. The Stable salt reactor (SSR) is a nuclear reactor design proposed by Moltex Energy. In this article we will discuss about nuclear reactor, its parts and their function. Fuel assemblies 5. See also paper on Cooling Power Plants. The coolant system plays a pivotal role in performing this function. Lower-temperature reactors can be used with supplemental gas heating to reach higher temperatures, though employing an LWR would not be practical or economic. 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